Validation of the Adult Domain-Specific Hope Scale in Iranian Postgraduate Students


Mohsen Ahmadi-Tahoursoltani 1 , * , Reza Karaminia 2 , Hassan Ahadi 3 , Ali Reza Moradi 4


1 Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan Branch, Hamadan, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medical Science, Baghiatallah University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Academic and Psychology, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Academic and Psychology, Tarbiat-e-Moaalem University, Tehran, Iran


Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: 14 (9); e93222
Published Online: October 16, 2012
Article Type: Research Article
Received: August 27, 2011
Accepted: October 19, 2011




Background : The aim of the present study was to investigate psychometric properties and the Standardization of Simpson’s Hope Scale (1999) in Iranian university students.
Materials and Methods : In this descriptive-survey research, 1000 students with age range of 18 to 34 and with the mean age of 23.9±5.13 were selected via the categorical cluster sampling method from different universities. Then they answered the Snyder’s Hope Scale, Oxford Happiness Scale, the Ahwaz Hardiness Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Inventory, Riff’s Psychological Well-being Scale, as well as Sympson’s (1999) Hope Scale (with little change).
Results :
Coefficients of Cronbach’s alpha (0.94), split-half (0.85), convergent validity with Hardiness (0.40), Happiness (0.64), Psychological Well-being scales (0.47), divergent validity (Beck Hopelessness, -0.25) criterion validity (Snyder’s Hope 0.55) were calculated, which were significant at p<0.01 level. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the 40-item Hope Scale for adults is saturated with five factors (social, academic, family, occupational, and leisure hope) that explain 56% of the scale’s variance. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the five mentioned factors are well loaded on a principal factor, and therefore, the six-factor model was well fitted with the data (AGFI=0.93, RMSEA= 0.037, NFI=0.98).
Conclusion : The results showed that this test has high reliability and validity and can be used in other studies.


Hope Standardization Reliability Validity Exploratory Factor Analysis Confirmatory Factor Analysis

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