Comparison of measured heterophoria with objective and subjective methods with attention to motor eye dominancy

AUTHORS

Hamed Momeni-Moghaddam 1 , * , Farshad Asgarizadeh 2 , Marzieh Ehsani 3 , Hossein Ansari 4 , batool Haghighi 5

AUTHORS INFORMATION

1 Instructor of Optometry, Health Promotion Research Center, School of Rehabilitation, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Zahedan, Iran.

2 MSc of Optometry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Tehran, Iran

3 BSc of Optometry, School of Rehabilitation, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Zahedan, Iran.

4 Instructor of Epidemiology, Health Promotion Research Center, School of Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Zahedan, Iran.

5 MSc of Optometry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Tehran, Iran.

How to Cite: Momeni-Moghaddam H, Asgarizadeh F, Ehsani M, Ansari H, Haghighi B. Comparison of measured heterophoria with objective and subjective methods with attention to motor eye dominancy, Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2011 ; 13(7):e93818.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: 13 (7); e93818
Published Online: May 26, 2011
Article Type: Research Article
Received: August 31, 2010
Accepted: October 19, 2010

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Abstract

Background: The one step in evaluation of binocular vision is determination of type and amount of deviation. For this purpose objective and subjective methods were used. The purpose of this study is was to compare the measured heterophoria with objective (cover test) and subjective methods (von Graefe, Maddox rod, phi phenomenon) considering motor dominancy.

Materials and Method: In this semi-experimental study, 100 students of Zahedan University of medical sciences who had inclusion criteria, selected, randomly. Refractive errors and dominant eye were determined by retinoscopy and hole in the card test, respectively. The deviation was measured objectively by using alternate prism cover test and subjectively by von Graefe, Maddox rod and phi phenomenon tests so dominant and nondominant eye were fixed alternatively. Data were analyzed in SPSS-15 software using repeated measurement of ANOVA and correlation tests.

Results: There were considerable statistical difference between different measurement methods considering the dominancy of fixator eye (p<0.001). In the correlation test, the most and least correlations were related to phi phenomenon (dominant eye fixator) and phi phenomenon (non dominant eye fixator) and von Graefe and phi phenomenon (with dominant eye fixator), respectively.

 Conclusion: The most accurate heterophoria measurement methods were phi phenomenon, cover test, Maddox rod and von Graefe, respectively. Although accuracy of phi phenomenon was more than other methods in determination of deviation, because subjective methods cannot be used in all conditions, cover test is the best method in measuring eye deviation. Also, measured deviations in all of methods were lower when dominant eye was fixator.

Keywords

Heterophoria cover test von graefe maddox rod

© 2011, Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

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